Svetlana Fisser, General Director of NPK HydroLand, LLC, emphasized in her report “Modern methods for researching construction materials of conservation and cultural heritage in historical centers” that innovative technologies and materials are needed in the XXI century in order to solve the problems of “sustainable restoration” to preserve the scientific potential of cultural heritage objects, which can restore the quality of the historical material destroyed by corrosion and to ensure its effective long-term protection from external influences in the conditions of the “new existence” of the monument.
According to the speaker, modern restoration requires knowledge not only in the field of architecture, but also in chemistry, ecology, materials science and engineering. The choice of materials for restoration is not an easy problem. On the one hand, the materials should be close to the original, but at the same time meet modern requirements. Fisser adheres to a conceptual approach to the study of materials, which is based on the study of the composition, structure, properties of historical building materials, the materials for their restoration and new materials which have passed the test of time for compatibility with historical materials of monuments of different nature.
The speaker thinks, that architectural monuments are affected by many factors: both external (temperature, air flow) and internal (humidity, biological pests, loads, etc.). Thanks to monitoring, it is possible to determine the nature of bio-contaminants present at the monument, the categories of loads, which must be done before choosing materials and developing a concept for restoration. Often, it is the choice of inefficient materials and restoration technologies that cause more harm than good to the monument, she complained. This can happen if loads, composition and structure of materials are not taken into account.
- Works to preserve the monument require the adoption of a set of measures: for cleaning, sanitation, strengthening, systemic protection from moisture, salts, aggressive gases, dirt, dust, and also, often, the adoption of special engineering solutions aimed at preventing damage and, above all, restoring waterproofing - , she said.
The speaker insists on the need to study the microstructure of historical materials, which allows choosing the right compatible restorative materials. The main problem arises at the line of contact between historical and modern material. It is at the junction that the most problematic areas, wet spots, etc. appear. The use of nanomaterials, which form a new system with historical material, which at the same time are the most durable, makes it possible to preserve and conserve architectural monuments.
Fisser demonstrated on unique photos the microcosm that inhabits the products of biochemical corrosion of damaged materials: fungi, algae, salts and much more.
The fact that we are working in the era of digitalization, working with electronic microscopes, allows us to store data in electronic form. Over the past 20-30 years, we have accumulated a huge data bank, now it is being systematized. We are creating a damage atlas, - Fisser said.