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July 3, 2023
Innovations in the historical center. Materials
  • Vladimir Kudryashev
    RT Deputy Minister of Construction, Architecture and Housing and Municipal Services
  • Karen Bashiyants
    General Director of Grafica Engineering, LLC, member of the Digitalization Commission of NOPRIZ
  • Anton Solon
    executive Director of the National Association of Construction Materials Manufacturers and Construction Industry (NOPSM)
  • Andrey Pustovgar
    Scientific director of the IAPSO IAPSO MSG, Advisor to the General Director of JSC Rusatomenergo International
  • Roman Borisov
    Managing Director of the Union of Manufacturers of dry building mixes
  • Natalia Kosyreva
    Head of Department Emulsion Technologies LLC
  • Valery Karageorgi
    Expert of the Union of Manufacturers of dry building mixes, restoration engineer of the 2nd category
  • Marat Zhiharev
    Head of the project "Construction"
    of the Aluminum Association
  • Denis Pozdnyakov
    Chief Architect of Vologda
  • Vadim Fedorov
    Director of Public Relations Associations of wooden housing construction
  • Ivan Petrunin (Argentina)
    Head of the architectural workshop Magic Architects
  • Dmitry Samylin
    Director of Kirill LLC
Brick, aluminum or systems of automated cleaning of objects?
One of the sessions of the “Rebus” Forum dwelled on the issues of the materials used in the construction of historical centers.

On July 4, Kazan hosted the session “Innovations in the historical center. Materials" within the scope of the International Forum “REBUS: Construction Economics in Historical Center” at the site of the IT-Park named after Bashir Rameev. The participants discussed the global experience of using materials in the development of historical centers, features of the main building materials applied for work in historical centers, examples of successful experience in the application of certain types of building materials, import substitution issues.

The speakers analyzed the materials making up the basis of the building (materials used for roofs, walls, facades and interior fittings of buildings). Particular attention was paid to their compliance with modern construction trends (environmental friendliness, energy efficiency, digitalization and “smart” technologies) and their availability during for the developer, as well as the impact of the applied materials on the project budget.
The session was moderated by Anton Solon, executive Director of the National Association of Construction Materials Manufacturers and Construction Industry (NOPSM), Karen Bashiyants, General Director of Grafica Engineering, LLC, member of the Digitalization Commission of NOPRIZ and Vladimir Kudryashev, the RT Deputy Minister of Construction, Architecture and Housing and Municipal Services.
«More expensive? Yes, but if you build a lot, then the economy changes its direction dramatically»
The session was opened by Andrey Pustovgar, Scientific Supervisor of R&D Institute SM&T NRU MGSU, Head of the Committee for Science and innovative development in the construction industry RSS (Russian Union of Constructors). He made a presentation on the “World and Russian experience of building in historical centers”. He touched peculiarities of construction in conditions of cramped urban development in the process of new construction, reconstruction and restoration of historical centers. The focus was on the implementation of industrial methods of construction, along with numerous advantages of industrial construction, the main flaw high initial investments in creation of industrial building base.

“More expensive? Yes, but if you build a lot, then the economy changes its direction dramatically,” the speaker explained.

As part of industrial construction, mobile industrial sites and industrial construction technologies are being applied in historical centers, alongside with industrial materials and products, digital building technologies and additive construction technologies. The report considered approaches to the choice of construction materials, taking into account the minimization of construction waste, energy consumption, and the negative impact of construction work on the urban environment with a high population density, which is important for development of strategy in the field of sustainable development of historical city centers. The participants considered application of intellectual, heat-insulating, heat-accumulating materials and dry building mixtures, during construction and restoration, those things that enable to reduce construction time and are already being introduced into the process today.
«Designers stumble over humidity parameters»
Then Valery Karagergi, an expert of the Union of Dry Building Mixtures Manufacturers, restoration engineer of the 2nd category, Baumit Head of Technical Support Service for the Northwestern Federal District, addressed the participants with the report “Innovative solutions for the application of dry building mixtures in areas of historical development. Issues of architectural monuments adaptation to modern use”. Speaking about the difficulties during the restoration, Valery Karagergi focused on insufficient information content when examining objects of cultural heritage, for example, in terms of humidity. This subsequently leads to an incomplete understanding of the historic buildings condition and a lack of solutions for the use of special materials. At the same time, the company Baumit, as the manufacturer of building and restoration materials, has already developed specific solutions, one of which has been tested in restoration of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in the village of Derzhavino.

- The lack of awareness among developers about the peculiarities of materials manifests that we need necessarily to support the research methodology with the acquisition of data on humidity parameters that make designers “stumble” over,- the speaker added.
«Historical objects - are points of attraction»
Marat Zhikharev, the Aluminum Association “Construction” project manager, spoke in his report “The specifics of aluminum structures application in areas of historical development” about the introduction of self-supporting shells based on aluminum, and called it the realization of individual approach in construction. The speaker mentioned good examples of the Zaryadye Park in Moscow, the Ostankino TV tower, Palace of Pioneers on Vorobyovy Gory.

- Restoration and reconstruction of buildings using aluminum solutions is a global trend today. Examples of buildings that have been reconstructed or restored with aluminum solutions can be found in many countries: Italy, Great Britain, Spain, France, Canada and others. We are no exception, - noted Marat Zhikharev.
- Today, member companies of the Aluminum Association offer a whole range of aluminum solutions for restoration and reconstruction activities: various kinds of translucent aluminum structures, including self-supporting structural shells, hinged facades, and systems of three-dimensional facade elements based on aluminum profiles, small architectural forms, etc. Solutions based on aluminum have a number of advantages: aluminum structures have low specific gravity, characterized by high corrosion resistance, strength, durability and aesthetic properties. This makes aluminum the most efficient material for reconstruction and restoration of buildings and iconic objects. Besides, aluminum plays such an important role in the context of the circular economy cycle as a possibility of almost endless processing. Examples of reconstructions using aluminum translucent structures: Polytechnic Museum in Moscow, Ostankino TV tower gallery and Conservatory named after Rimsky-Korsakov in St. Petersburg. Modern aluminum solutions harmonize with historical constructions: the inclusion of aluminum entrance groups equipped with access control systems and function of evacuation exits, allowed not only implementing reconstruction of the “Space and Engineering” pavilion at VDNH (Exhibition of Economic Achievements), but also gave new functionality to the building.

Aluminum translucent structures, suspension subsystems of ventilated facade, as well as elements of decorative lighting facades were used in the implementation of reconstruction programs for clinics and cinemas in Moscow and the Public Center in Tatarstan.

In case of new construction objects in the historical building zone, aluminum facades are used which imitate the texture of stone, wood, brickwork, as well as decorating buildings systems of volumetric facade elements based on aluminum profile.
«Since we have such an opportunity, we can try to design a wooden school or kindergarten»
The session was also attended by Denis Pozdnyakov, Chief Architect of Vologda. He made a presentation “The peculiarity of wooden structures application in areas of historical development” and noted that Vologda at present is one of the brightest examples of conservation and development of wooden architecture, despite the fact that there is a big gap between a classic example of rustic architecture and a modern way the wood is used in construction.

-Vologda applies the latest technologies of SLT-panels in wooden housing construction at construction of apartment houses, non-stationary trade facilities, as well as bridge structures. As we have such an opportunity, we can try to design a wooden school or a kindergarten, - Denis Pozdnyakov shared his ideas.

Leading international timber holding SEGEZHA GROUP built the first wooden multi-storey residential houses in Russia from SLT-panels in the Vologda region. And the development of the project documentation for such facilities in Vologda is already underway, including, within the framework of educational courses of architectural schools.
«It was easier to buy bricks in Europe and not to bother»
Dmitry Samylin, Kirill, LLC Director, in his report “Brick buildings as part of the cultural code of the historical part of the city. Heritage and Perspective” noted that recently we have witnessed very effective projects of monuments and city-forming objects, as well as historical territories adaptation to the life of the cities. He supported his words with the examples of the Trinity Church in Nikitniki, Krasny Perekop factory, Novaya Gollandiya in St. Petersburg.
- Now we see these objects in this form only due to the special properties of bricks, such as beauty, durability, versatility, environmental friendliness and fire resistance, - said the speaker.
-The main problem in the industry is import substitution, because almost all projects apply imported products. Now we have adapted our work to the existing conditions; but formerly there was no interest in domestic producers. It was easier to buy bricks in Europe and not to bother, - said Dmitry Samylin. - But production does not stand still. There appear digital twins of bricks, masonry constructor used for visualization and developing a unique color collection of this material.
«Let’s dig up black soil in a nearby pit, and everything will be fine»
Then Dmitry Varlamov, TEGOLA Corporation, addressed the audience with a report “Beautification of the city without demolition of buildings: green roofs as compensatory landscaping of the historical center”. Talking about modern ergonomics in the design of buildings in conditions of densely located low-rise buildings of the historical center of the city, the speaker noted that it is necessary to breathe life into the building and emphasize attention to the use of rooftops as living spaces.

Dmitry Varlamov mentioned the problems that arise during operation of green roofs. They are: stagnant water, roof leakage, unaccounted load and plants death.
- Let's dig up black soil in the neighboring pit, and everything will be fine. It will not. This is a serious test for the greenery. It is important to consider everything: both climatic zones and plant geography, - the speaker said about the details of introducing green roofs.

- Such roof is not just a constructive solution, but it is a complete system which needs to be specially designed already on the stage of an idea for its full and effective implementation.
Unique solutions in terms of equipment operation automation
The session was completed by Natalya Kosyreva, the Emulsion technologies, LLC Head of the Department, with the report “Technology of water bodies in the historic center recovery. Digital simulation of water bodies purification”. She shared information with colleagues about bioengineering technology based on systematic approach to cleaning reservoirs, and took as an example, the Lake Nizhny Kaban in Kazan.

In particular, she placed emphasis on the Turtle Raft automated cleaning system of objects. The process embraces initiation of built-in mechanisms for the reservoir water purification. At the first stage, the Turtle Raft water purification system moves by a predetermined trajectory and launches self-cleaning processes along the way. At the second stage, the trajectory of movement can be repeated, or Turtle Raft can be directed to the already identified most polluted areas of the reservoir.

The method is based on environmental friendliness, which is necessary when it comes to historical centers of the city.

The method is based on the automatic operation of the Turtle raft system, which enables to get a purified reservoir with virtually no human participation.

Almost every city with a dedicated historical center has its own body of water, which is usually integrated into a common urban and architectural ensemble. That is why preservation and maintaining ecological balance of a water body is an important element of the historic center preservation.